Main styles alias ragam gerakan
Posted Januari 16, 2012on:
Breaking was created in the South Bronx, New York during the early 1970s. It is the first hip-hop dance style. At the time of its creation, it was the only hip-hop dance style because Afrika Bambaataa classified it as one of the five pillars of hip-hop culture along with MCing (rapping), DJing, graffiti writing, and knowledge. Though African Americans created breaking, Puerto Ricans maintained its growth and development when it was considered a fad in the late 1970s. In a 2001 interview Richard “Crazy Legs” Colón, the president of Rock Steady Crew, commented on how Puerto Ricans contributed to breaking: “I think the difference is when the brothas first started doing [it] and it was at its infancy they weren’t doing acrobatic moves. That didn’t come into play until more Puerto Ricans got involved in the mid 70s. We then took the dance, evolved it and kept it alive. In ’79 I was getting dissed. I would go into a dance and I would get dissed by a lot of brothas who would ask ‘Why y’all still doing that dance? That’s played out’. By 79, there were very few African American brothas that was doing this… We always maintained the flava. It was like a changing of the guard and all we did was add more flava to something that already existed.” Breaking includes four foundational dances: toprock, footwork oriented steps performed while standing up; downrock, footwork performed with both hands and feet on the floor; freezes, stylish poses done on your hands; and power moves, complex and impressive acrobatic moves.[note 1] Transitions from toprock to downrock are called “drops.”
Traditionally, breakers dance within a cipher or an Apache Line. A cipher is a circular shaped dance space formed by spectators that breakers use to perform in. Ciphers work well for one-on-one b-boy (break-boy) battles; however, Apache Lines are more appropriate when the battle is between two crews—teams of street dancers. In contrast to the circular shape of a cipher, competing crews can face each other in this line formation, challenge each other, and execute their burns (a move intended to humiliate the opponent, i.e. crotch grabbing). In 1981, the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York City hosted a breaking battle between the Dynamic Rockers and the Rock Steady Crew. The Daily News and National Geographic covered this event.
Locking, originally called Campbellocking, was created in Los Angeles, California by Don “Campbellock” Campbell and popularized in the United States by his crew The Lockers. In addition to Campbell, the original members of The Lockers were Fred “Mr. Penguin” Berry, Leo “Fluky Luke” Williamson, Adolpho “Shabba Doo” Quinones, Bill “Slim the Robot” Williams, Greg “Campbellock Jr” Pope, and Toni Basil, who also served as the group’s manager. At the 2009 World Hip Hop Dance Championships, Basil became the first female recipient of the Living Legend Award in honor of her role in giving locking commercial exposure.
Locking looks similar to popping, and the two are frequently confused by the casual observer. In locking, dancers hold their positions longer. The lock is the primary move used in locking. It is “similar to a freeze or a sudden pause.” A locker’s dancing is characterized by frequently locking in place and after a brief freeze moving again. It is incorrect to call locking “pop-locking”. Locking and popping are two distinct funk styles with their own histories, their own set of dance moves, and their own competition categories. Locking is more playful and character-driven, whereas popping is more illusory. In popping, dancers push the boundaries of what they can do with their bodies. Locking has specific dance moves that distinguish it from popping and other funk styles. These moves include “the lock, points, skeeter [rabbits], scooby doos, stop ‘n go, which-away, and the fancies.” A dancer cannot perform both locking and popping simultaneously.
Popping was created by Sam Solomon in Fresno, California and performed by his crew the Electric Boogaloos. It is based on the technique of quickly contracting and relaxing muscles to cause a jerk in a dancer’s body, referred to as a pop or a hit. Each hit should be synchronized to the rhythm and beats of the music. Popping is also used as an umbrella term to refer to a wide range of other closely related illusionary dance styles such as strobing, liquid, animation, and waving. Dancers often integrate these styles with standard popping to create a more varied performance.[note 2] In all of these subgenres, it appears to the spectator that the body is popping, hence the name. The difference between each subgenre is how exaggerated the popping is. In liquid, the body movements look like water. The popping is so smooth that the movements do not look like popping at all; they look fluid. The opposite of this is strobing (also called ticking) in which the movements are staccato and jerky.
Popping as an umbrella term also includes gliding, floating, and sliding[note 3] which are lower body dances done with the legs and feet. In gliding, a dancer appears as if they are drifting across the floor on ice. Opposite from gliding is tutting which is an upper body dance that uses the arms, hands, and wrists to form right angles and create geometric box-like shapes. Tutting can be done primarily with the fingers rather than the arms. This method is called finger tutting. In both variations, the movements are intricate, linear, and form 90° or 45° angles. In practice, tutting looks like the characters on the art of ancient Egypt, hence the name—a reference to King Tut.
While popping as an umbrella term is widely used by hip-hop dancers and in competitive hip-hop dancing, Timothy “Popin’ Pete” Solomon of the Electric Boogaloos disagrees with the use of the word “popping” in this way. Many of these related styles (animation, liquid, tutting, etc.) can not be traced to one person or group. Solomon states “There are people who wave and there are people who tut. They’re not popping. I say this to give the people who created other styles their just dues and their props.”